Βραζιλία:μία είδηση που πέρασε στα "ψιλά"

Andrea Fumagalli,από: http://www.rekombinant.org

Στις 3 του Φλεβάρη ο πρόεδρος της Βραζιλίας Λούλα υπόγραψε το νόμο για το ελάχιστο εγγυημένο εισόδημα που είχε ψηφιστεί από την βουλή στις 8 του περασμένου Γενάρη.Για τις συνθήκες της Βραζιλίας και όχι μόνο,αυτό θεωρείται σαν ενα πολύ σημαντικό γεγονός αφου αυτή τη στιγμή η Βραζιλία είναι η δεύτερη χώρα στον κόσμο μετά την Αλάσκα (όπου από το 1995 ισχύει για όλους αυτό το οικονομικό μέτρο-1600 δολάρια το χρόνο αυτή τη στιγμή και καθορίζεται από την εκάστοτε τιμή του πετρελαίου )και σε λίγο ακολουθεί και η Ν.Αφρική. Σύμφωνα με τον βραζιλιάνικο νόμο,θα δίνεται κάθε μήνα ένα ποσό σε κάθε δικαιούχο ατομικά και αυτό αφορά τους φτωχούς αυτής της χώρας(που δεν είναι και λίγοι)αλλά και τους ξένους μετανάστες που ζουν σαυτή την χώρα και έχουν κλείσει πενταετία. Για το ποσόν που θα δίνεται θα πέρνεται υπ'οψην οι ρυθμοί ανάπτυξης και οι κάθε φορά οικονομικές δυνατότητες της χώρας και πάντως το ύψος του θα είναι αρκετό για να καλυφθούν τα ελάχιστα έξοδα επιβίωσης σε τρόφιμα,νοίκι,εκπαίδευση και υγεία.Το μέτρο θα αρχίσει να εφαρμόζεται από το 2005 και αναμένονται με ενδιαφέρον οι υπουργικές αποφάσεις και τα προεδρικά διατάγματα που θα το εξειδικεύσουν. ************************************** Για όποιον/α ενδιαφέρεται να μάθει περισσότερα: Brazil: Citizen's Income Signed into Law by President Lula This was a truly extraordinary event. Overlooking the world-famous Praça dos tres Poderes designed by Oskar Niemeyer, the ceremonial room of the President's Palacio do Planalto was gradually filling with journalists, photographers, TV crews, ministers and other political dignitaries. Facing the swelling audience, four empty chairs. And behind them, a large wall covered by colourful smiling faces of all ages and races, alternating with an inscription in large letters: "RENDA BÁSICA. Cidadanía para todos" (Basic income. Citizenship for all"). An off voice announced the arrival of the President, and the crowd went quiet, as José Inacio Lula da Silva and his wife Marisa sat down. By their side, the Ministro da Casa Civil (Brazil's de facto Prime Minister) José Dirceu, and Federal Senator Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy, Lula's only opponent in the Worker's Party's presidential primaries and author of the law proposal which the President was there to sign. Summoned by the off voice, I rose to the pulpit to indicate briefly what I saw as the world-wide significance of the event (an expanded English version of my intervezntion was published the next day in South Africa's Business Day and is available from from www.etes.ucl.ac.be/PVP/PVPInterventions.html). Next was Senator Suplicy's turn, visibly moved, who briefly retraced his long fight for the introduction of a guaranteed minimum income in Brazil, eloquently recited a poem, restated the key advantages of a universal citizen's income over means-tested schemes, thanked the various Workers' Party heavyweights who had helped the proposal through the various stages, and ended in a way that did not exactly go unnoticed in the Brazilian press, by warmly hugging the president. After ceremonially signing the law, Lula paid hommage to the determination of his old comrade, whom he described as the inexhaustible Don Quixote of minimum income, while warning that there was no magical solution to Brazil's problems and that the new law would only be introduced gradually. Notwithstanding this presidential caution, this was definitely a "day of glory" for the very popular 62-year old Sao Paulo Senator, who was surrounded for the occasion by his 95-year old mother, his ex-wife and mayor of Sao Paulo Marta Suplicy, several other members of his family and many friends. A first culmination in his fight had been the unanimous adoption of his 1991 minimum income proposal by the federal Senate, never endorsed by the Chamber of Deputies. His more ambitious 2001 citizen's income proposal, instead, was approved with some amendments by the Senate in December 2002 and by the relevant commissions of the Chamber of Deputies in September and November 2003. The President had until January 2004 to either veto or sanction it. He chose the latter. What will now happen? As initially formulated, the 2001 Suplicy proposal stipulates that, subject to it being endorsed by a national referendum in 2004, "an unconditional basic income, or citizenship income" will be introduced in 2005 for every Brazilian citizen or foreign resident for five years or more, that it will be of equal value for, payable in monthly amounts and sufficient to cover "minimal expenses in food, housing, education and health care", taking into account "the country's level of development and budgetary possibilities". Two main amendments were made before unanimous approval by the senate: the idea of a referendum was dropped, on the ground that everyone would be in favour anyway, and a new article was added, stipulating that the "basic citizenship income" will be realized in steps, at the discretion of the Executive, giving priority to the neediest layers of the population". And it is with these two amendments that Suplicy's proposal was signed by Lula. From the second amendment it follows, no doubt, that Brazil is bound to remain stuck for quite a while with a means-tested system. But this does not make the law meaningless. First, the existence of the law makes progress easier towards a stronger integration of existing assistance system, and towards a stronger integration with the social insurance and the tax system, as Brazil's federal government is legally entitled to take any number of further steps, in a financially responsible way, towards a full universal basic income. Secondly, this perspective will help face the objections that will no doubt arise soon, as the federally funded means-tested system keeps getting more comprehensive and less stingy, and as individual and collective beneficiaries strategically adjust to its getting established. When over 50% of the active population works entirely in the informal sector, the income test needs to rely essentially on declarations of income earned by the beneficiaries. As the officials in charge of the existing income-tested Bolsa Familia system are well aware, there is no realistic way of seriously checking whether the declarations are correct. Consequently, either one needs to be ready for major problems of arbitrariness in and resentment about local decisions of inclusion and exclusion, in particular of a clientelistic kind. Or one needs to devise more observable alternative proxies of income poverty, such as the number of light bulbs, the quality of the material used for the house or how well fed the children look, at the expense of discouraging systematically a diligent use of the modest resources poor households have. A genuine citizen's income would get rid of theses problems in one swoop, while extending support to low-paid working families. Even if progress towards it must be gradual - for example through turning the existing means-tested Bolsa familia and the existing income tax exemption for dependent children into a universal child benefit system that would also benefit the working families that are neither poor enough to be entitled to welfare payments (about EUR 50 per capita per month) nor rich enough to pay tax (about EUR 400 per month) -, it therefore offers a way of tackling effectively the criticisms the existing system is bound to trigger without accepting to roll them back. To investigate the way in which the new law could influence the further development of existing programmes, Eduardo and I had, on 7-9 January, in quick succession a long evening discussion with Jacques Wagner, Minister of Labour, and his staff; two long meetings with Antonio Palocci, Finance Minister, and two of his top cabinet advisors, and with Cristovam Buarque, Education Minister and former Governor of the Federal District of Brasilia, where the Bolsa Escola programme was first introduced; a working lunch with Ana Miranda, the President's special assistant in charge of the new Bolsa Familia programme, and her staff, and with Marta Suplicy, mayor of the city (Sao Paulo) in which the largest municipal assistance programme is operating; and a working breakfast with José Graziano, Minister in charge of the Zero Hunger programme. The general picture was that there was strong sympathy for the objective, but no clear vision about how to get there and, for the time being, many other priorities. How much difference the new law will make to Brazil's protection system in the coming years is quite uncertain. Just think that off the four ministers we saw, two (Buarque and Graziano) lost their job and one was shifted (Wagner, from Labour to Social and Economic Development) in Lula's recent government reshuffle of 23 January. Nonetheless, the signing of Senator Suplicy's law proposal was an important, indeed incredible, moment in the history of basic income, that should give hope and strength to many across the world who view basic income as a central compoentnt of a desirable and sustainable future for our societies. The pictures of the event shown on the same evening on national TV can be accessed at http://pop.gmc.globo.com/webmedia/pop_legado.html? player=wmv&usuario=tvgjornalismoaberto&tipo=ondemand&programa=817&path=/video/jg /20040108/CRG_mat03_high.wmv&banda=bl Some coverage in Brazilian national papers can be downloaded from http://www.estadao.com.br/agestado/noticias/2004/jan/08/141.htm http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/folha/dimenstein/noticias/gd080104h.htm http://noticias.bol.com.br/politica/2004/01/08/ult96u56994.jhtm and more can no doubt easily be found through search engines (try "Lula", "Suplicy", "renda básica de cidadania", "projeto de ley", "8 de janeiro", etc.). In Spanish, some coverage can be found in the Mexican "El Economista" http://www.economista.com.mx/online4.nsf/0/59439A4A9D8769FA86256E150070F8D8?

από A.Γ. 07/02/2004 5:58 μμ.


Όντως πολύ ενδιαφέρουσα η είδηση. Κάτι δεν κατάλαβα: ο Αντρέα Φουμαγκάλλι έγραψε το κείμενο στα αγγλικά; Αν όχι, τι ακριβώς έκανε; Ρωτάω διότι πήγα στο http://www.rekombinant.org και δεν εντόπισα τίποτα σχετικό.

στις λίστες: rekombinant@liste.rekombinant.org , και precog@inventati.org Εγώ την πήρα μέσω της: rekombinant@liste.rekombinant.org

Για το κείμενο στα αγγλικά δεν αναφέρει την πηγή.Λογικά θα πρέπει να περιλαμβάνεται σε κάποια από τις πηγές που αναφέρει στο τέλος.

Προσθέστε περισσότερες πληροφορίες

To μέγιστο μέγεθος των αρχείων είναι 16ΜΒ. Επιτρέπονται όλες οι γνωστές καταλήξεις αρχείων εικόνας,ήχου, βίντεο. ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ! Για να υπάρχει η δυνατότα embed ενός video πρέπει να είναι της μορφής mp4 ή ogg.

Νέο! Επιλέξτε ποιά εικόνα θα απεικονίζεται στην αρχή του σχόλιου.

Creative Commons License

Όλα τα περιεχόμενα αυτού του δικτυακού τόπου είναι ελεύθερα προς αντιγραφή, διανομή, προβολή και μεταποίηση, αρκεί να συνεχίσουν να διατίθενται, αυτά και τα παράγωγα έργα που πιθανώς προκύψουν, εξίσου ελεύθερα, υπό τους όρους της άδειας χρήσης Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License